Ancient Philosophy: Aristotle and His Successors

开始时间: 09/19/2020 持续时间: Unknown

所在平台: Coursera

课程类别: 其他类别

大学或机构: CourseraNew



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What is philosophy? How does it differ from science, religion, and other modes of human discourse? This course traces the origins of philosophy in the Western tradition in the thinkers of Ancient Greece. We begin with the Presocratic natural philosophers who were active in Ionia in the 6th century BCE and are also credited with being the first scientists. Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximines made bold proposals about the ultimate constituents of reality, while Heraclitus insisted that there is an underlying order to the changing world. Parmenides of Elea formulated a powerful objection to all these proposals, while later Greek theorists (such as Anaxagoras and the atomist Democritus) attempted to answer that objection. In fifth-century Athens, Socrates insisted on the importance of the fundamental ethical question—“How shall I live?”—and his pupil, Plato, and Plato’s pupil, Aristotle, developed elaborate philosophical systems to explain the nature of reality, knowledge, and human happiness. After the death of Aristotle, in the Hellenistic period, Epicureans and Stoics developed and transformed that earlier tradition. We will study the major doctrines of all these thinkers. Part I will cover Plato and his predecessors. Part II will cover Aristotle and his successors.

古代哲学:亚里斯多德及其继任者:什么是哲学?它与科学,宗教和其他人类话语方式有何不同?本课程追溯古希腊思想家西方哲学的起源。我们从苏格拉底的前苏格拉底自然哲学家开始,他们在公元前6世纪活跃于爱奥尼亚,也被认为是第一批科学家。 Thales,Anaximander和Anaximines对现实的最终组成部分提出了大胆的建议,而赫拉克利特则坚持认为不断变化的世界具有潜在的秩序。 Elea的Parmenides对所有这些提议都提出了有力的反对意见,而后来的希腊理论家(例如Anaxagoras和原子论分子Democritus)试图回答这一反对意见。在五世纪的雅典,苏格拉底坚持基本道德问题的重要性:“我将如何生活?”,他的学生柏拉图和柏拉图的学生亚里士多德发展了精心设计的哲学体系,以解释现实,知识,和人类的幸福。亚里士多德死后,在希腊时代,伊壁鸠鲁人和斯多葛派人发展并改变了这一早期传统。我们将研究所有这些思想家的主要学说。第一部分将介绍柏拉图及其前任。第二部分将介绍亚里斯多德及其继任者。


The motion of the universe is eternal and its cause is an eternal unmoved mover, Aristotle’s god. Our goal in life is to achieve happiness, which comes in two varieties: the human happiness we achieve by exercising the virtues of character, and the godlike happiness we achieve when we grasp eternal truths.





What is philosophy? How does it differ from science, religion, and other modes of human discourse?